Bryant Nielson | August 21, 2023
When Satoshi Nakamoto created Bitcoin in 2008, he introduced the concept of a decentralized digital currency powered by a novel consensus mechanism called Proof of Work (PoW). This allowed participants to agree on the state of a decentralized ledger without requiring trust in any single party.
How Proof of Work Functions
In PoW systems like Bitcoin and Ethereum, miners compete to add new blocks of transactions to the blockchain by expending computational power to solve cryptographic puzzles. The first miner to present a valid solution is rewarded with newly minted coins. This process secures the network, incentivizes miners, and mints new currency.
However, PoW has some drawbacks. It’s extremely energy intensive, requiring vast amounts of computing power. According to Digiconomist, the Bitcoin network currently consumes around 110 Terawatt Hours per year – more than the entire country of Sweden! PoW mining is also dominated by large pools using specialized ASIC hardware. This leads to centralization over time as smaller miners get pushed out.
The Emergence of Proof of Stake
To address these issues, an alternative consensus method called Proof of Stake (PoS) emerged. Instead of expending computational work, PoS systems select validators to propose new blocks based on the number of coins they hold – their stake in the network. This selection process can be randomized, weighted by stake size, or use other methods. Validators then vote to reach consensus on which block should be added next.
PoS was first implemented in 2012 by Peercoin, but it’s gained considerable steam in recent years. Ethereum, the second-largest blockchain, is transitioning to PoS consensus through its Beacon Chain and upcoming Merge upgrade. PoS systems are viewed as much more energy efficient and decentralized than PoW.
Delegated Proof of Stake
Delegated Proof of Stake (DPoS) is a variation used by blockchains like EOS, Lisk and Steem. Participants stake their tokens and vote for ‘delegates’ to act as validators in their place. Only the top delegate candidates by vote receive the ability to generate new blocks.
DPoS speeds up block time and boosts scalability through this representative governance model. However, critics argue that delegating validation authority to just a few nodes leads to some centralization.
Algorand’s Pure Proof of Stake
Algorand provides a unique spin on PoS through its ‘pure’ variation. Algorand uses a randomized, weighted lottery selection to choose validators based on their relative stake. This lottery makes it very difficult for adversaries to corrupt or attack the network. Algorand also implements a Byzantine agreement protocol to reach consensus among validators.
Remarkably, Algorand achieves consensus without forks. Its inventor Silvio Micali proved that under certain assumptions, Algorand can reach definitive consensus quickly with minimal communication. This makes Algorand highly decentralized while allowing it to process 1,000s of transactions per second.
Hedera Hashgraph and Gossip
Beyond blockchain, Hedera Hashgraph uses a novel consensus model called Gossip Protocol. Instead of blocks, nodes gossip signed information with a random node they’ve not communicated with recently. These transactions quickly propagate across the network. Nodes reach consensus on the order transactions occurred in a fast, secure, asynchronous way.
While innovative, Hedera’s governance model is more centralized than blockchain networks. Only approved nodes can join the network and transactions are not entirely transparent. However, Hedera can handle 10,000+ transactions per second with very low fees.
Ouroboros Proof of Stake
Cardano uses a provably secure PoS system called Ouroboros. Ouroboros divides time into epochs and slots, each governed by a randomly selected slot leader. Slot leaders must stake ADA coins to participate, aligning their incentives with the network. Multiple slot leaders are chosen per epoch to avoid single points of failure.
Cardano also implements a variation called Ouroboros Genesis that brings additional security guarantees. Ouroboros has mathematically verifiable security properties while remaining highly decentralized and scalable.
The Search Continues…
As blockchain technology evolves, the quest for the perfect consensus mechanism continues. PoW unlocked decentralized digital currency but consumed vast energy in doing so. PoS offers a more sustainable path ahead with “green crypto”, but still has room for improvement when it comes to security, scalability and decentralization. Innovations like Algorand, Hedera and Cardano provide promising new models, but no perfect solution has emerged yet. As researchers refine existing protocols and create new ones, the future remains unknown. The evolution of consensus continues with much still to be discovered on the horizon.